Plant Collection Policies - are Guidelines Needed?
Volume 2 Number 6 - June 1996
The need for a document to guide managers in the formation of plant collection policies was the overwhelming opinion of participants at a training session addressing this issue at the 4th International Botanic Gardens Conservation Congress in Perth last year. "We will need collection policies to survive in the future" was the majority verdict.
The results from Perth clearly demonstrated that there are both areas of divergence and consensus on fundamental questions of how to develop, apply and monitor plant collection policies. This was not surprising given the complexity of the subject and the diversity of botanical institutes represented at the congress. To help botanic garden managers resolve these often pivotal questions, BGCI will coordinate the production of a handbook that will aim to provide practical guidelines for developing individual strategies. It will follow the model provided by their publications on CITES, Reintroductions and Environmental Education in 1994 and 1995.
From the results of the training session at Perth it is evident that the guidelines will need to encompass a review of:
How Can You Help?
Continued participation from the kaleidoscope of botanic gardens in the development of the guidelines is required to ensure that they are objective and relevant to our diverse needs. Your participation in this process would be greatly valued. Please could you complete the brief questionnaire which is inserted in this issue as a loose A4 sheet. Results of the questionnaire will commence the production of the guidelines which has a publication target of 1998.
A Summary of Results from Perth
The value of "brain storming" at an international congress is the diversity of viewpoints and the collective experience of its participants. At the Collection Policies session, 71 participants represented 48 institutes from 20 countries. In order to manage this number of contributors and to maximise the exchange of ideas, 6 subgroups were chaired by Tim Walker (Oxford, U.K.), Philip Moors (Melbourne, Australia), Daniel Botha (Kirstenbosch, South Africa), Patrick Muthoka (Nairobi, Kenya), David Hardman (Kew, U.K.) and Bert van den Wollenberg (Utrecht, The Netherlands).
To use the limited time effectively, the following definitions were provided for a Collection and a Collection Policy.
A Collection could include living plants and fungi including seed, pollen and spores; herbarium specimens; DNA; reference material derived from scientific study, e.g. chromosome slides; economic botany artefacts; accompanying literature, i.e. libraries and archives. The collection could be as large as the entire holdings of a botanic garden with an institute mission and linked to a national or international network. Alternatively, it may be just one of several collections in a botanic garden. Its purpose could be singular or multi-disciplinary. It could be historical, recent or proposed and be of varying size and resources.
A Collection Policy is a written document which acts as a practical management tool by defining the limits of the collection and guiding the actions of its manager through future developments. It should embrace the remit of the organisation; be formulated using a clear methodology; be practical, achievable and flexible; be subjected to constant review and, if necessary, revision.
A questionnaire provided the structure and focus for the discussions and covered:
Of the 48 institutes represented, 56% had either a full or part policy whilst 27% had no policy at all. One botanic garden was in the process of developing a policy and seven others, with representatives in several subgroups, gave varying results from no policy to a full policy. This latter response indicates a need to maximise communication within an institute to prevent misunderstandings on fundamental questions.
These results correlate with a 1992 survey, conducted by David Rae and published by the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh, U.K. which indicates that 65% of botanic gardens had a collection policy whilst 32% did not.
The following results are a sample of some of the replies, given by the session participants, to questions relevant to the formulation of future guidelines. They should not be regarded as statistically representative of all botanic gardens.
The Value of a Plant Collection Policy - Why Write One?97% To help integrate organisational activities
88% To be used as a public relations document
86% It will help deaccessioning
83% The institute wants a policy
75% To identify network potential
73% Resource planning will be assisted by it
72% A policy is needed to survive
54% The management are demanding it
56% The staff/internal users are asking for it
The Formulation of a Plant Collection Policy - What, How, Who?99% Collections in other botanic gardens should be considered
87% Only broad guidelines need to be stated in the policy
70% All international legislation should be incorporated
61% A collection policy can be written in the absence of a strategic plan
56% One document should communicate to all stakeholders
55% A collection policy cannot be written without a mission statement
48% All collections should be networked
46% An internal committee should write the policy
34% The collection manager should write the policy
Implementation and Review of a Plant Collection Policy93% The policy should be reviewed within 5 years
50% A panel should review the policy
No conclusions can be drawn from many other questions which the participants were ambivalent about. For some questions there are many potential answers which will suit different organisations and their modus operandi. This is the greatest challenge for the handbook - to provide practical guidelines for developing individual strategies.
The Herbarium Handbook
This is a standard reference for all botanists, herbarium managers and technicians involved with the making and maintenance of herbarium collections. It's published by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.